Oct 31 2017

Unified Auditing in Oracle 12c

Category: Administration,Database SecurityFatih Acar @ 10:30

Unified Auditing is new audit feature came with Oracle 12c version. You have to do enable Unified Auditing to use after install database. Unified Auditing come as disabled by default.

In previous releases of Oracle Database, there were separate audit trails for individual components:

  • SYS.AUD$ for the database audit trail,
  • SYS.FGA_LOG$ for fine-grained auditing,
  • DVSYS.AUDIT_TRAIL$ for Oracle Database Vault, Oracle Label Security, and so on.

In 12c, these audit trails are all unified into one, viewable from the UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL data dictionary view for single-instance installations or Oracle Database Real Application Clusters environments.

Auditable Components With Unified Auditing

  • Audit Any Role
  • Application Context Values
  • Oracle Database Real Application Security Events
  • Oracle Recovery Manager Events
  • Oracle Database Vault Events
  • Oracle Label Security Events
  • Oracle Data Mining Events
  • Oracle Data Pump Events
  • Oracle SQL*Loader Direct Load Path Events
  • Operating System Audit Records into the Unified Audit Trail

The unified audit trail, which resides in a read-only table in the AUDSYS schema in the SYSAUX tablespace, makes this information available in a uniform format in the UNIFIED_AUDIT_TRAIL data dictionary view, and is available in both single-instance and Oracle Database Real Application Clusters environments. In addition to the user SYS, users who have been granted the AUDIT_ADMIN and AUDIT_VIEWER roles can query these views. If your users only need to query the views but not create audit policies, then grant them the AUDIT_VIEWER role.

When the database is writeable, audit records are written to the unified audit trail. If the database is not writable, then audit records are written to new format operating system files in the $ORACLE_BASE/audit/$ORACLE_SID directory.

You can use mixed mode auditing enables both traditional (that is, the audit facility from releases earlier than Release 12c) and the new audit facilities (unified auditing). In mixed mode, you can use the new unified audit facility alongside the traditional auditing facility. In pure unified auditing, you only use the unified audit facility.

As in previous releases, the traditional audit facility is driven by the AUDIT_TRAIL initialization parameter. Only for mixed mode auditing, you should set this parameter to the appropriate traditional audit trail. This traditional audit trail will then be populated with audit records, along with the unified audit trail. When you upgrade your database to the current release, traditional auditing is preserved, and the new audit records are written to the traditional audit trail.

Enable Unified Auditing

You can check current status with below query.


If VALUE is TRUE, Unified Auditing is enabled.

You have to shutdown all running database process (database,listener) to activate Unified Auditing before run script. If you use Oracle RAC, you have to run script on all of nodes.

SQL> shutdown immediate;
SQL> exit;

[oracle@testdb ~]$ lsnrctl stop LISTENER

[oracle@testdb ~]$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib/
[oracle@testdb lib]$ make -f ins_rdbms.mk uniaud_on ioracle ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_HOME  

SQL> startup;

The VALUE has to be TRUE.

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Tags: Database Administration, Database Security, Oracle 12c, Oracle 12c Security

Jan 27 2015

How to Change Oracle Enterprise Manager Port Number

Category: Administration,Database SecurityFatih Acar @ 17:29

If you want to change Oracle Enterprise Manager port number, you can use “emca -reconfig ports -DBCONTROL_HTTP_PORT ” command, this is simple. You can use to take security measure for Oracle EM. I will give 1820 as port for Oracle EM as example.

Change Oracle Enterprise Manager Port


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Tags: Database Administration, Database Security, Oracle Administration, Oracle Security

Dec 23 2014

RMAN Encrypt Backup in Oracle

Category: Backup And Recovery,Database SecurityFatih Acar @ 09:04

You can protect your backups with rman encryption. You have three ways to rman backup encryption. You can use wallet, password or dual mode. I will tell you password protection.

Configure RMAN Backups With Password Protection

rman target /
RMAN> set encryption on identified by ‘yourpassword’ only;

You can backup with backup database command. Do not need to change any backup script.

You can change encryption algorithm on RMAN Configuration.

Show Encryption Algorithm

SQL> select algorithm_id, algorithm_name, algorithm_description, is_default from v$rman_encryption_algorithms;

Change Encryption Algorithm
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Tags: Database Administration, Database Security, Oracle Administration, Oracle Backup and Restore, RMAN Encrypt Backup

Dec 22 2014

How to Create Oracle Wallet for Encrpytion

Category: Administration,Database SecurityFatih Acar @ 14:35

Oracle Wallet Manager is a password protected stand-alone Java application tool used to maintain security credentials and store SSL related information such as authentication and signing credentials, private keys, certificates, and trusted certificates.

1- Create Wallet Directory

[oracle@testdb ~] cd $ORACLE_HOME
[oracle@testdb db_home] mkdir -p ORA_WALLETS

2- Write Wallet Location Information in sqlnet.ora File

[oracle@testdb ~] cd $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin
[oracle@testdb db_home] vi sqlnet.ora


3- Configure Wallet in Oracle Database
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Tags: Database Administration, Database Security, Oracle Administration, Oracle Security, Oracle Wallet

Apr 29 2013

Disable root SSH Login on Linux Server

Category: Database Security,Linux & Unix,System SecurityFatih Acar @ 10:45

Root user is the most authoritative user on linux operating systems. You can take measure for security with disable root ssh. You can connect to server with other users.

Edit sshd_config

vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config

#LoginGraceTime 2m
#PermitRootLogin yes
#StrictModes yes

Note : “PermitRootLogin yes” is default value. This value allows ssh root login
You have to change parameter and remove # symbol.

#LoginGraceTime 2m
PermitRootLogin no
#StrictModes yes

Edit Port

Note : You can change ssh connection port, then you can provide extra security.

vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Change port number


Restart sshd Service

service sshd restart

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Tags: Database Security, System Administration, System Security